Greater uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) will be encouraged extending the range that EVs can travel between recharges. Improvements in the charging infrastructure will also benefit applications such as photovoltaic inverters. A bidirectional charging arrangement will not only be able to replenish the connected EV, it could also provide a means for users to potentially generate money. Energy stored in a battery by a photovoltaic inverter could be accessed by the electrical grid to address demands at peak times (in a practice referred to as load balancing). Toshiba has published a white paper on this subject, which gives details of its bidirectional DC-DC power supply reference design based on a highly efficient dual-active bridge configuration.